Lichtman slept with the other women in a small room. Pictet describes the ICRC's aid as weak compared to the immensity of the suffering, yet enormous compared to what was done by others. CU antenna. A man walks outside. She announces a wedding and some individuals whose names are hard to decipher. Uhlandstr. She says that she remembers when the German army came into Vienna. She says that he wrote this after the war, and that they did not only rely on the Germans but took other measures such as preparing bunkers and making false papers. Prause tells Lanzmann he was educated as an engineer and entered the service of the Reichsbahn in 1933. Forest surrounding Sobibor train station (trims). Lanzmann speaks French with his collaborators. Lanzmann asks the man whether he is saddened that there are no more Jews in Poland. 09:21:43 Le Casting du film. When the Germans made the ghetto they created a system of certificates; whoever had a yellow certificate was sent to a second ghetto. Heinz Schubert. Bergson talks about the discipline of the Jewish people and how they often follow their leaders. Lanzmann asks again whether he desired power, and then whether he was somehow impressed by the power wielded by the Nazis. The camera pans over to Lichtman's husband, who watches his wife as she speaks. Moreover, they actively used their unique position to help their comrades, whether that had been by alerting them to searches conducted by the SS or security, turning a blind eye to allow Latvian Jews into the German section, smuggling people into jail to pay visits to family members, etc. FILM ID 3765 -- (White 48) Theresienstadt Ville et Crematoire Steiner proposed saving 1,000 children who were sent to Theresienstadt from Bialystok, and the failure to raise money to ensure the deal. “TR 135” CU text on the stones. When they were unloaded from the train they beat up and wounded with a knife or razor blade Kapo Meier. He shows Lanzmann the shaving kit and soap and his wife's ring. Discusses how the initial phase of inaction by world leaders to save the Jews propelled Nazis to carry out the Holocaust. Trees wave in the wind as he listens to Kovner who is off camera. 09:21:50 No picture, just audio. She tells how the Germans living in the area would get together to speak about the war and territory lost and gained. 04:19:04 Frau Schubert says that she saw and heard the tape recorder. CR22 Hilberg continues to talk about secrecy and the attempt to reduce anxiety or reinforce hope among the Jewish community about their fate. Reel ends, a new one begins. As a representative of the Swiss Red Cross in 1944, Maurice Rossel was asked to inspect Theresienstadt. Glazar talks about the relations between his extended family members. At Lanzmann’s request, Dotty reads the text of a certificate from President Kennedy on the wall in their home. As the headquarters of the insurrection, the bunker at Mila 18 had been given to the resistance fighters by gangster Samuel Ascher. In order to get government action they had to reach out to as many Americans as they could, especially influential figures who could help to mobilize the cause. Glazar describes what he wore, including riding boots, which he kept shined in order to make an impression on the SS. Later Avriel learned from Sharet that Brand was arrested. Lanzmann asks her who organized the black market. He talks about the infirmary Kapo, Kurland (? FILM ID 3169 -- Camera Rolls #46-47 -- 12:00:03 to 12:23:10 They created a sketch of the camp which Franz Stangl claimed was 100% accurate. Brunner finally caught on and Murmelstein explained that if Brunner ordered work transports he could not send old or ill people. CR 7A Mute coupes of an outdoor train station. Lanzmann offers money again, then offers to give Kretschmer's wife a fur coat [Persianer]. A group of women pass by. INT of the car, Adidas box on the left. He asks the rabbi (through an interpreter in Italian and Hebrew) if the survivors believe in God, if their faith was shaken because of Auschwitz. The fact that Weissmandel was so integral to the effort to save the European Jews made his survival doubly important. When she went to the factory doctor, he asked inappropriate sexual questions and performed a pelvic exam. By the end of 1941, the Einsatzgruppen began to utilize gas vans for the extermination of women and children. Biren says that she doesn't know because they didn't talk about feelings. Steiner says that a few members of the Judenrat, including himself, Gisi Fleischmann, and Dr. Neumann, met separately and made other plans. By 1938 he was a master builder or architect (Reichsbahnbaumeister) and he was posted to Poland after the war began. Murmelstein reported this to Brunner. (7.31) People stand in front of houses, a cart pulled by two horses on the right. He accompanied two or three trains loaded with Jews. They say Mr. Laabs is a good neighbor. McClelland outlines the condition of refugees. On June 26, 1944 the ICRC visited Theresienstadt, which had been completely remodeled and "beautified" so as to trick the ICRC into believing the Jews were being treated well. He talks about Rumkowski (chairman of the Jewish council in the Łódź ghetto), who allowed himself to be called "King Chaim." CR 7 The camera focuses briefly on a photograph in the room, presumably Michelsohn's husband. (17:53) Cutting the hair and beards of two men. Roll 11 She did not know Rumkowski before she entered the ghetto. They knew he would never survive crossing a Nazi border on his way back to Hungary, so the Haganah decided to inform the British government with the hopes that they would be interested in saving or detaining Brand. It was so hot in June and July. It is raining; cars and pedestrians with umbrellas pass by. In Bratislava he eventually became a part of the Judenrat. He admits that he gave Theresienstadt a clean bill of health and would probably do so again today. He says that documents that could have helped him and the other defendants in the Einsatzgruppen trial were suppressed in order to shield the Wehrmacht. FILM ID 4630 -- White 33 Chelmno l'eglise A disabled man, wagon, man sleeping. The younger Jews fall through the sieve into Auschwitz. (5:00) Birkenau entrance. Zaidel says that even after they had been rescued, no one could stand being near the prisoners for the smell of the dead and smoke clung to them. shot from a moving car. 10:09:06 They sit in the kitchen, with the camera positioned to capture Kryshak. Brand says that Kasztner would not have been human otherwise. Three women sit on a train. They had theories about Himmler wanting to make contact with Eisenhower. Laval dismissed McClelland's claims that the Jews were being exterminated. CU of Bergson talking to someone off camera. 01:06:49 Roll 2 Deportation of the Jews of Auschwitz started in 1940. Deportations stopped for a while, which Wisliceny attributes to the Catholic Church's intervention. She speaks of emigration. Roll 9 He goes on to say that although he moved back to Krakow after his marriage in 1957, he and his wife visit Stanislaw (now part of Russia) every year. Men were taken for forced labor and many never returned. She says they were happy to go, some even requested that they be sent, because they were told they would be working inside and have enough food to eat. (2:58) Large piles of coal, with train tracks running beside. [CLIP 6 BEGINS] Marton describes the conditions at Bergen-Belsen. They also discuss their views on religion and the Pope. 02:22:05 CR10 Gawkowski talks about the first transport he drove, a convoy of Greek Jews. He says that Auerswald was a lawyer from Berlin who had a Polish or a Russian wife. She talks about the train car, being separated from her brother, and losing the rest of her family. 05:07:04 On CR #52 and 53 Srebnik and Lanzmann speak in German while standing in the location of the barracks (now a construction site). Garfunkel says that a characteristic of Jews is to try to save what can be saved and to maintain hope up until the very last minute. He ran to a village and got bread from someone there. He points out that Auerswald was in Berlin during the Wannsee conference, although he was not at the conference itself. He says that while he never mentions to his students his own experiences in the Warsaw ghetto and in Belzec, he always tells them about Zygielbojm. Cut to orange. Lichtblau blew himself up along with a gas tank. CR5 CU of a window with curtains. Inge Deutschkron, a German Jew who appears only briefly in Lanzmann's completed film, witnessed the increasing persecution and violence in Berlin, including the promulgation of the Nuremberg Laws and Kristallnacht. Lanzmann probes him on this point, asking him at what point he did know. Film ID 4707 -- Belzec 22-23 Gare. (3.34) Clapperboard: “Pologne Hiver Bobine.” (4.03) Cars driving on the street. Schalling doesn't know, but those stationed in the forest certainly did. The man recounts that one day he was called to a meeting by the German authorities. (8.49) Graves. Arnon says that this event was very badly received by the other Jews, who viewed it as a festival in the middle of the deportations. They were told to serve and could not refuse. (2.46) The balconies of an apartment building. She replies that she felt very strongly both Jewish and Polish because this was the atmosphere in which she was raised. In this interview with Claude Lanzmann for SHOAH, Hilberg discusses several aspects of his research, including the culpability of the German railways in the deportation process of European Jews, as well as the significant roles Adam Czerniakow and Rudolf Kasztner played in the genocide of the European Jews. Lanzmann comments on how hard it is to imagine the horrors of Sobibor happening in these tranquil forests. Inge concurs, and continues to list the aspects of life that were cut off: hairdressers, laundry services, so on. The Germans entered the ghetto on Malevkins street and made their way to the factories. 0000053071 00000 n Rabbi leads the services. 05:06:42, John Pehle discusses the War Refugee Board, U.S. policy and inaction, the Riegner cable of March 1943, Rabbi Wise and the rally at Madison Square Garden, antisemitism, the bombing of Auschwitz, the International Red Cross, and the Vatican. Forst mentions that six months before his deportation Weissmandel publicized plans of Auschwitz that he obtained from two escapees. Snow on the ground. FILM ID 4624 -- Wannsee DK 23.7B.19.32.22 Murmelstein returns to the subject of Brunner's selections. Members of the Senate, led by Vice President Henry Wallace, suspended their session to come out and meet the rabbis. By chance, he also learned of a third secret, Operation Brand, wherein the Germans euthanized those victims of bombing raids in Germany who were severely injured or became mentally ill. Suchomel says he did not think about suicide, just survival for himself and his family, and that he will have to live with this burden for the rest of his life. Les Remparts. People in winter coats walk along the street in front. She talks about riding on the train looking at the people around her to decipher differences in the shape of ears. He says that when he was in Warsaw he was visited by some railway workers from Lvov who told him that the best thing about Warsaw was that there were no Jews on the streets, and that was the first time he realized how much the Poles hated the Jews. Srebnik stands in front of the church in Chelmno, surrounded by Polish villagers. Rumkowski seemed to take his job in the Judenrat seriously. 03:28:14 Weissmandel resolved to impart what he had learned of the killings to the world, and wrote to various countries and authorities worldwide. Claude Lanzmann's questions are sometimes inaudible (they often do not appear in the transcripts). He talks of conditions in the freight cars, and then of the conditions of his time working at a military airport. He looks at papers and listens to Murmelstein. The Auschwitz factories were eventually bombed but they hesitated at bombing the crematoriums for fear of harming even more Jews. CR1 Glazar sits on a couch in front of a window. NY 88 Must, LS Lanzmann and Becher talking in the street, CUs. Jews rearranged their lives under the pretense that life would return to normal. The Polish man showed Rotem and Sigmund an escape route via a courtyard which had several days previously been the site of the Irgun fighter's massacre. He identifies difficulties within the US government of communicating with President Roosevelt and organizing action. Arnon says that only a small percentage of the Jews reported to the station when ordered to do so for deportation [CLIP 3 ENDS]. Church. Some, like Eichmann, wanted to profit personally [and for Germany?] He also mentions that they were always transported in freight cars. In the end they were all gassed, including the nurses. FILM ID 4662 -- White 56 TR 201-206C Gare: panneau + oies Kryshak says there were many Jews, they bought goods from them, even his doctor was Jewish. The actions carried out under Operation Reinhardt were disorganized. --- The following reels contain audio only. More shots of the suitcases: “ Hajek, Franz” “Ludwig Israel Baruch” “Levi” CU of a suitcase with a transport number and a faded name. Another students believes that the Zionist effort to create the State of Israel was independent of the Holocaust. Poland). 02:11:21 Schubert reads from a piece of paper with pen in hand. A woman stands in the doorway of her home, while traffic passes in the street in front of her. Shaky as the camera zooms in on a passing train. FILM ID 3258 -- Camera Rolls #56A,57 -- 05:00:16 to 05:06:41 He observes a growing gap between technology's rapid transformation and morality's relative stagnation. Second Farmers replies that "the Jews have good heads," and that's why they were able to organize this revolt. (21:52) Lanzmann asks what could have been achieved with specific action. FILM ID 4633 -- White 36 Chelmno les alentours. Mr. Ziering was also deported at that time. FILM ID 3202 -- Camera Rolls #13-15 -- 06:00:00 to 06:11:23 Lanzmann asks him about the Nazis' interest in "Judenwissenschaft" and Murmelstein says that they were ignorant of Hebrew and the meaning of ritual objects, even as they (Rosenberg, for example) confiscated them. 01:05:12 CR70 The camera now sits to Lanzmann's right shoulder, capturing Lanzmann's profile and McClelland's front over the round table. Roll 2 Murmelstein thinks that the Israelis still practice "Judenratpolitik." (01:10:22) After her factory job, she was given a job in the women's police force organized by Rumkowski. Kryshak responds that they thought it was oil burning; they had no idea until after the war what it really was. Poniatovo: oratoire He tells the story from the point of view of a particpant. Lanzmann and Corinna walk away, they are both smiling. He comes back to the question Lanzmann asked, whether he would have or could have carried out his threat against the SD, but the discussion is cut off. When he asks why the Poles didn't kill the Germans themselves, he gets a lot of an answer and interrupts the tape. Suchomel says that some people got rich by fleecing the Warsaw Jews, but in later phases the people were so poor that the women didn't even have wedding rings, having given them up to Poles at Malkinia in exchange for water. A Polish man wakes him up and tries to move him from the bench. Lanzmann asks about the guards who accompanied the trains. CR 95A: 04:25:22 repeats CR 95. (10:44) A man is walking behind a car pushing it down the road while someone else sits in the driver's seat. 11:18:05 CR35 Glazar says that in Treblinka the prisoners dreamed that it was all a nightmare and that they would wake or that the world would realize what was happening and come to stop it. (02:02:56) Lanzmann questions her about the hangings she witnessed and she tells him that they were used as a tool of death, that they were deadly fear made public. Camp memorial in Polish and Hebrew. Lanzmann comments on the survivors' willingness to talk: survivors who had served as policemen in other ghettos, such as Łódź, refused to talk about their involvement. Karski says that what happened to the Jews is not comparable to any other event in history. But he also says that very few Jews settled in his small village, and instead more were in the cities, and in general, the Poles and Ukrainians were shocked by the actions of the Germans. (12.40) Boom mic and a clapperboard. Mute shots of Glazar and Lanzmann sitting at a table overlooking the river. Lanzmann suggests that they were weak and Gewecke says they were certainly physically weak, living on half rations. Mr. Piwonski smokes a cigarette outdoors at the Sobibor railway station. Lanzmann asks what Ohlendorf meant when he specified that the executions must be carried out in a military and humane fashion. She answers that Kasztner was as vain as any other person, that it is a human quality. Glazar says he witnessed [Unterscharfuehrer August] Miete shoot a pregnant woman who had gone into labor. They went to work at the Heinrich Lanz AG factory which was producing armaments. Pictet affirms the importance of the ICRC remaining neutral in favor of providing aid. Film ID 3515 -- Rotem 149, take 22 -- 00:00:26 to 00:11:14 Falborski describes how the Polish citizens of Chelmno had been evicted and the castle became the designated camp for the Jews. He says that Arthur Greiser, Gauleiter of Wartheland, treated the Chelmno staff to dinner at the Riga Inn. Vrba's job was to find people in this special group who would be willing to join the resistance. The prisoners began forming their plan of escape one month into their time in the forest, after they realized they would not survive. Cars pass while driving on a highway, large smoke stacks in BG. Organist. CR 105 : Vrba is now seated at a table in front of the window. They opted to go "U-Boat" or underground. Lanzmann asks Vrba why he thinks the Jewish leaders of Hungary did not warn their people that deportation meant death. She says it was depressing because "they are people like we are." Murmelstein describes the Jewish council as marionettes but finally he refused to gather people for deportations and Brunner had the idea to make the selections himself. 06:18:40 CU of Lanzmann in Pehle's house. He says that most people in the Nazi party were not antisemitic. Lanzmann asks about the role of the Jewish police. Bauer tells a case in Kosov, Ukraine, where when alerted that the Germans were coming to kill the Jews, three of the Judenrat delayed the Germans with talk while the Jews ran off to hide. NY66 The same three men continue to describe their experiences as Jewish policemen in the ghetto. Murmelstein says that Eichmann told him quite a lot about Theresienstadt before he was sent there. 01:04:54 More shots of the EXT of the railway station, another train arrives. They talk about the differences between the Jewish world and leadership between then and now - how it is more united today than before because of the existence of Israel and the successful representation of the World Jewish Congress. The money ended up going to Eichmann. 206, 223, 222 (16:39) Sound cuts out and ends abruptly with Hilberg mid-sentence. 01:04:05 SOB 61 Snowy train tracks. [Gustav] Wagner threw the children from the train into another wagon and Lichtman could hear their screams. He says he couldn't stand up to the authorities because of the need to protect his family. FILM ID 3128 -- Camera Rolls #9-12 -- 04:00:04 to 04:22:53 Lanzmann returns to the subject of the Jews forced to work in the forest unloading the bodies from the gas vans. Train Bug Malkinia->Treb "20 sec de voyage de nuit" He could hear the screams of the victims from his home three kilometers from the camp. 340,000 Jews from Poland, and 20,000 Jews from other European countries.] 01:05:52 Brooklyn Heights looking towards the Brooklyn Bridge. Bob 158 COR 14 People pass by the store front. Hilberg continues to tell the story of the boy who was shot. FILM ID 4632 -- White 35 Chelmno la procession CR 4 02:00:04 Lanzmann asks Grassler about the Aktion during which the Jews of the Warsaw ghetto were forced to surrender their fur coats in the bitterly cold winter of 1941-1942. Kapo Meier was allowed to recover and live instead of being sent to the fake camp hospital, the Lazaret. Prag XIII-833” “Transport No. In the outtakes, Suchomel provides further details about the treatment of Jews at the camp, as well as a more ambivalent memory of his experiences than is apparent in the released "SHOAH". She says that at first they all made jokes about the idea of a Jewish state but soon realized the situation was serious. People with Jewish names encountered problems with the authorities. Feingold explains that it is an old classification that differentiates the original Jewish migration that moved to the West side known as Uptown Jews and the new arrivals known as the Downtown Jews. Rossel says that he still stands behind his report based upon the circumstances under which it was written. TR 93. The group of Piwonski, Lanzmann, and Barbara are walking towards the camera. He says that the members of the Sonderkommando slept in the crematoriums. Children laugh as one rowdy (drunk) man goofs off for the camera, and later interrupts an interview, scaring Lanzmann's interviewee away from the camera. 01:00:07 Ehud Avriel sits in a chair in front of a window overlooking the ocean, most likely in a hotel or office in Tel Aviv, Israel. Lanzmann contradicts him on this point but moves on to ask about the structure of the ghetto. Only 30 or 35 Jewish survivors live in Corfu today. Hilberg describes the last sequence of confiscating Jewish property, as possessions were seized during roundups and finally removed after they were gassed. He, along with other young, strong German Jewish men, had been designated to police the Latvian section of the ghetto. The deportation of the prominent Jews, such as himself, symbolized this Entjudung. (13:12) Deep burial pit filled with bodies. Piwonski says that the isolation of the Jews into ghettos was never accepted by the Polish community. When women were compelled to work, she was able to get a job for her mother. FILM ID 3775 -- Camera Rolls 27-29 Lanzmann and Corinna Coulmas start by asking Malka Abramson Goldberg about her business, children, and grandchildren. He remembers an instance when a woman in a transport asked for water and a Ukrainian said no, and she threw the pot she was carrying on her head. (6.42) A black locomotive with red details. They hid in the water until late at night and then fled. She replies that the war was a very difficult time, where one could not even go to church, and that thankfully life has returned to its normal rhythm. Aid for Jews was provided mainly by the Joint Distribution Committee and the War Refugee Board. 1 C-Dur Hob. He saw the Jews from Kosow Lacki walk on foot toward the camp. End title, “Holocauste”. The men speak to Lanzmann in English. Main street of an industrial area. (8.50) The Belzec sign, zooming out to show the train station. Audio but no video for the last few seconds of the reel. (11.42) Take 22. Grassler says he wasn't, and in fact he often read books by Jewish authors. Hilberg suggests that Nazi officials were increasingly aware of the focused direction in which the Final Solution was headed by 1941. CR20 Hilberg describes the Einsatzgruppen, the special operation force that was responsible for mass killings in the East. In November 1942 Weissmandel burst into Gisi Fleischmann's office, terribly upset, with the first definite news from Poland that deportation meant annihilation. The camera zooms in from outside. When they arrived at the camp labeled Sobibor, it was too late. One of the technicians adjusts an antenna. He saw Stangen, the camp commandant, amongst other SS officers. 01:00:19 John Pehle exits his house, which is located in a wooded area, and walks around his yard. Bolkoviac continues by telling how difficult it was to save a Jew (due to their different language/appearance), about the great risk to those involved and their families. FILM ID 4681 -- White 16 Sobibor Foret Bte 16, Chutes Bte 87 Sobibor Gare Lanzmann says, "That is a very good answer." Lanzmann-Glasberg. FILM ID 4732 -- Paysages Divers II / orthodoxe Kfar Iona Lochamei Hage. A few men look out from open windows of the white building. FILM ID 4646 -- NY 68.69 Survivant Riga Baer Interview Select from premium Susanne Heinz Heinz of the highest quality. They tell the story of their extraordinary escape from the Ponari camp, digging a tunnel for months, where the dogs that caught them backed away whimpering because the men smelled of death. FILM ID 3314 -- Camera Rolls #1-3 -- 01:00:03 to 01:34:05 FILM ID 4634 -- White 70 CH 20-22, 3-4 La Mer Inondation Harry Baer Lui-même. They pause in their conversation while a boat passes by on the river. A street profile in wintertime. Many had to wait in the barracks up to three days without food and only a bucket of water because of gas chambers' lack of capacity. 02:22:31 CR6 Inge says that Switzerland was not sympathetic to Austrian Jews wishing to escape the Nazis. COR 23 COR 24 The carriage takes the road along the water. As for the Jews, they were not as concerned about them as they were for themselves, he says. Towards the end of the war the ICRC was able to enter the camps and provide aid to prisoners and even remove some from the camps. his wife had a son. Lanzmann presses Prause on whether he knew that the trains were taking Jews to Treblinka. 06:59:43 Lanzmann stands in front of Grabow's synagogue, and reads a letter written on January 19, 1942 by its rabbi, HaRav Yaacov Sylman, to friends in Łódź. Grassler says that he was a soldier following orders. Explains reasons given by the Allies for choosing not to bomb such as the creation of a greater terror. The larger reason is of course the Fuehrerbefehl. (1.55) A far away view of the road, with a bridge going over a river. The minibus is parked on Eugen-Langen Str.
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